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Pharmacy It is the art and science of compounding and dispensing drugs or preparing suitable dosage forms for administration of drugs to humans or animals. It includes collection, identification. purification, isolation, synthesis, standardization and quality control of medicinal substances.
Pharma Hub is blog & study portal for students aimed to provide free Medical Knowledge.
In the Absorption & Distribution process, a drug has to move across various biological membranes like cell wall, blood-brain barrier etc. the biological membrane is made up of 2 layers of phospholipids with intermingled protein molecules. All Lipid-Soluble substances get dissolved in cell membrane & they are easily permeated into the cells.
The success of antibacterial agents owes much to the fact that they can act selectively against bacterial cells rather than animal cells. This is largely because bacterial and animal cells differ both in their structure and in their biosynthetic pathways. Let us consider some of the differences between the bacterial cell (defined as prokaryotic ) […]
There is evidence of antibacterial herbs or potions being used for many centuries. For example, the Chinese used moldy soybean curd to treat carbuncles, boils, and other infections. Greek physicians used wine, myrrh, and inorganic salts. In the Middle Ages, certain types of honey were used to prevent infections following arrow wounds. Of course in […]
Pharmacology is the science of drugs (Greek: Pharmacon–drug; logos-discourse in) . In a broad sense, it deals with interaction of exogenously administered chemical molecules (drugs) with living systems. It encompasses all aspects of knowledge about drugs, but most importantly those that are relevant to effective and safe use for medicinal purposes.
Antimicrobial drugs are the greatest contribution of the 20th century to therapeutics. Their advent changed the outlook of the physician about the power drugs can have on diseases. They are one of the few curative drugs. Drugs in this class differ from all others in that they are designed to inhibit/kill the infecting organism and […]
The main molecular targets for drugs are proteins (mainly enzymes, receptors, and transport proteins) and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA). These The main molecular targets for drugs are proteins (mainly enzymes, receptors, and transport proteins) and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA). These are large molecules ( macromolecules ) that have molecular weights measured in the […]
Why should chemicals, some of which have remarkably simple structures, have such an important effect on such a complicated and large structure as a human being? The answer lies in the way that the human body operates. If we could see inside our bodies to the molecular level, we would see a magnificent array of […]
The medicinal chemist attempts to design and synthesize a pharmaceutical agent that has a desired biological effect on the human body or some other living system. Such a compound could also be called a ‘drug’, but this is a word that many scientists dislike because society views the term with suspicion. With media headlines such […]
The term ‘crude drug’ generally applies to the products from plants & animal origin found in a raw form. It is referred in relation to the natural products that has not been advanced in value or improved in condition by an any process or treatment beyond that which is essential for its proper packing and prevention from deteriorating.
General anaesthesia are CNS depressant that produce anaesthesia, which extends to the entire body and are characterised by a state of unconsciousness, analgesia and Amnesia with skeleton muscle relaxation and loss of reflexes. General anaesthetic are employed for surgical operations and four stages of anaesthesia may be recognised as: Stage 1 (Analgesia): The patient is […]
The useful and toxic effects of many plants and animals products were known to man since ancient times. Infact, there has been a quest for drugs and remedies since the existence of mankind itself. In early days, there was a close relationship between religion and the treatment of disease. The knowledge of the use of […]